The First CAR 2 CAR Forum took place:
22nd and 23rd of May 2007
Audi Forum Ingolstadt
Please download the programme flyer of the Forum 2007:
1st Car2Car Forum - Summary
The first CAR 2 CAR Forum organised by the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium was held at Audi Forum, Ingolstadt on 22 and 23 May 2007. More than 100 active and basic members as well as invited experts and speakers from all over Europe enjoyed the interesting presentations during the plenary sessions and vivid discussions during each session and the workshops. Coffee breaks, lunch and Evening Reception on 22 May offered the opportunity for deepened technical as well as private conversations between all participants.
The 1st CAR 2 CAR Forum laid the foundation for follow-up CAR 2 CAR Forums organised by the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium once a year at alternating locations.
1st day: Session 1 : International Activities and Initiatives
Session Chair: Ingrid Paulus (Audi AG)
Roman Schindlmaister (Audi AG) opened the 1st CAR 2 CAR Forum and cordially welcomed all participants at Audi in Ingolstadt.
In his speech "The CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium - Vision, Challenge and Status" Rudolf Mietzner (General Manager of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium) highlighted the vision, challenges and work status of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium. Some exemplary presented applications support the high benefits of Car-2-Car Communication for improving future road safety and efficiency. Challenges are seen for the deployment phase in organising a fast coming up with sufficient market penetration as a prerequisite for realising benefits for the driver/customer, for the frequency spectrum allocation of the requested European frequency bands and for the standardisation and harmonisation of the European project results. Furthermore Mr. Mietzner pointed out the role and the complement of the European COMeSafety project and CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium.
Mr. Juhani Jääskeläinen (EC) informed about the "Research on Cooperative Systems in EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes". He explained the transport policy of the European Commission and pointed out the potential of co-operative systems on road safety as well as on energy, environmental and economical challenges. He consecutively informed about the European approach and outlined the co-operative systems and GST followed by an information about on-going projects of FP6. COMeSafety is seen as a key-player for pushing the process towards a common (communications) architecture. FP7 addresses several objectives of co-operative systems. Both "ICT for Co-operative Systems" and "Field Operational Tests" will be addressed in the 2nd and 3rd calls.
In his presentation "Status and Ongoing Activities in the USA - Focus on Government Projects" Hariharan Krishnan (General Motors) outlined two projects of the CAMP Vehicle Safety Consortium followed by the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) project and the 5.9 GHz DSRC standards development. A lot of DSRC/WAVE standards documents have been published already. DSRC radio technology supports both public messages and private messages using six service channels and a control channel, which is monitored every 100 ms.
Starting with the organisation of the ITS Info-Communications Forum and the ITS history in Japan Takeshi Yamamoto (Vehicle Safety Communications, Task Group, Inter-Vehicle Communications Committee, ITS Info-Communications Forum, Japan) highlighted the "Status and Ongoing Activities in Japan". Similar to Europe the current new IT reform strategy targets on reducing the number of traffic fatalities, conducts on large-scale verification test by 2008 and promotes deployment of cooperative driving safety support systems by 2010. Some examples of applications and a roadmap of milestones for implementation of cooperative driving safety support systems complemented his presentation.
Session 2 : European Focus
Session Chair: Matthias Schulze (DaimlerChrysler AG)
As first speaker Timo Kosch (BMW Group) reported on "COMeSafety - Project and Liaison Activities, Task Force Architecture". He pointed out the project goals of the supportive action and explained the relations with the diverse stakeholders. Liaison activities play an important role due to COMeSafety's focus on interoperable inter-vehicle communication and vehicle to infrastructure communication for improving road safety and efficiency. A variety of EU and national projects elaborate numerous systems and standards. Especially the proposed convergence of CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium and CALM has been discussed more detailed. Common views on the complex overall system are requested for coming up with harmonised communication architecture in future. He reported on the scope of harmonising the communication architecture, its basic tasks and the current status of the basic approach. All experts are asked for supporting and for contributing to this important task.
Luisa Andreone (CRF) started her presentation on "Cooperative Systems for Road Safety & Related Future Field Operational Tests" with the two statements that road accidents are still unacceptably high and that users perceived benefit and acceptance of safety support systems. Since today different in-vehicle telematic platforms are under development compliance with an open vehicle telematic platform and overall architecture is requested to make the vision beyond 2010 on wireless communications for a safe mobility happen. The integrated project SAFESPOT focuses on cooperative systems for road safety based on smart vehicles and smart roads as illustrated by some applications. The challenges from the key technologies under development require future FOTs performing on "ready to market" systems for improved safety and mobility. Close to market systems have to be tested, certified and promoted during FOTs. FOTs may also work on technological prototypes with respect on system concept, design and development, implementation as well as on future R&D, but its costs on technological prototypes should be carefully evaluated.
Dieter Seeberger (DaimlerChrysler) prepared the report on "Spectrum Allocation for Intelligent Transportation Systems", which was given by Rudolf Mietzner (General Manager of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium), as Mr. Seeberger had to participate in the WG FM meeting in Nice. Mr. Mietzner explained the complexity of the European frequency allocation process and the current status archived so far. CEPT has done all the studies to provide the technical basis for ITS frequency allocation at 5.9 GHz. Compatibility with all other services and applications is achieved for 30 MHz band width allocated to time critical road safety and efficiency applications. Further 20 MHz band width for other applications may suffer on interference from some fixed services above. CEPT justifies the requested 30 to 50 MHz. The final report is scheduled for the end of the year.
Workshop 3 : Applications and Business Opportunities
Session Chair: Cornelius Menig (Audi AG)
For explaining the motivation of his report "Use Cases of Car-2-X Communication" Horst Wieker (HTW Saarland) started with a look on traffic growth and causes for traffic accidents and pointed out the potential improvement by Car-2-Car Communication. Then he showed some scenarios with respect to safety, efficiency and infotainment. Following the definition of use-cases and applications he described some examples for safety, efficiency and infotainment from the WILLWARN project and the active project.
In his report on "Applications of Car-2-X Communication" Christopher Kellum (Adam Opel GmbH/General Motors Europe) highlighted the difficulties in standardising Car2X and the need of both views on benefits and technical requirements for successful development. Following he defined six different applications and pointed out their postulated system assumptions.
Manfred Harrer (ASFiNAG) talked about "Visions and business opportunities for cooperative systems". After briefly introducing ASFINAG he informed about the focus and role of ASFINAG Traffic Telematics Department in cooperative systems and pointed out the field of cooperation for making the long term vision of cooperative services reality in future. Relevant information services are developed by the European project COOPERS and tested on two demonstration sites. He outlined the strategy and master plan focusing on the three fields Internet, Navigation and TV mobile. The positioning phase is mainly driven by offered free of charge information services. The marketing phase starts in 2008 and will complement additional commercial services. The future services have different characteristics and announce good business opportunities for the future.
In his presentation on "Customer requirements and acceptance of CAR 2 X Communication" Guido Beier (HU Berlin) pointed out the need for acceptance research, its methods and steps used for reducing the diversity of the statements received. Interviews show a high demand for an efficient navigation including traffic jam management. Navigation and danger warning systems are the most urgently requested C2X Applications. C2X is mainly motivated by economy and comfort, however safety and desire for control are important to address. Based on the findings he proposed a social navigation system and pointed out the findings of a first study.
Workshop 4 : PHY - MAC - NET
Session Chair: Achim Brakemeier (DaimlerChrysler AG)
Starting with a motivation for practical WLAN tests Klaus Meier (Volkswagen AG) presented in his talk "Is IEEE 802.11 WLAN sufficient in vehicular environments?" results of real measurements. The influences of the antenna position as well as latency and throughput measurement have been discussed comparing available IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN. Depending on the WLAN standard and the card output power used the communication range without packet losses differed between 350 m up to more than 1.400 m. First results of "real world" scenarios point out important challenges for the development of a reliable CAR 2 CAR Communication System.
As basis for answering the question "Do we need two receivers for safety applications?" Achim Brakemeier (DaimlerChrysler AG) required WAVE compliant operation of the CAR 2 CAR Communication system. WAVE supports up to seven channels of 10 MHz each while the Car-2-Car Platform has to support at least two 10 MHz channels. Therefore a single receiver results in high latency and reduced capacity. Due to its better performance a dual receiver single transmitter design is proposed, but such hardware does not yet exist. Consequently the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium has decided to emulate the dual receiver concept using 802.11a within the upcoming Car-2-Car Demonstrations.
Andras Kovac (EFKON) stated that "Radio Congestion Control" has to find the right set and combination of control mechanisms for each scenario. The toolkit offers a solution space, which has been extensively discussed for event driven safety messages, periodic broadcast messages and unicast routing. Among others beaconing control is proposed for optimal transmission of periodic broadcast messages and power control, radar view data and extended CSMA/CA channel access mechanisms have been proposed for optimisation of the unicast messages.
As the capacity of a wireless ad-hoc network is not known a-priori Andreas Festag (NEC) proposed in his talk "Congestion Control from the Communication System Perspective" three Car-2-Car Mechanisms for periodic and event-driven safety messages. He discussed more detailed the relevance assessment and re-broadcast control, transmit power control for beacons and redundancy control for geo-broadcast. However for ensuring a reliable communication system additional mechanisms have to be adopted on application level, too.
Massimiliano Lenardi (Hitachi) started his presentation on "Multi-hop Communications and Position-based Routing" with a discussion of the need of multi-hop broadcast and position based routing. Based on the requirements of automotive safety applications he proposed the two solutions Multi-Hop Vehicular Broadcast Beaconing and MOvement PRediction (MOPR) routing. The set of algorithms cover pure flooding, area base suppression, back fire algorithm, congestion detection & TIC and dynamic scheduling algorithm and have been discussed and analysed more detailed. Identified gaps and tasks will be addressed in future.
2nd day: Workshop 5 : Security
Session Chair: Hans-Jörg Vögel (BMW Group)
In his presentation on "Working Program and Aims of the European eSecurity Working Group" Andre Seeck (Federal Highway Research Institute : BASt) informed about the new working group recently established by the eSafety Forum. Starting with the terms of reference and motivation he pointed out the two focus areas on data protection and intrusion. He discussed the eight activities of the WG eSecurity analysis of the state of the art, roles in eSecurity business, threats, security requirements, organisational requirements, measures for quality assurance and responsibilities, research requirements, results more detailed and highlighted the importance of the complex security aspects. Establishing security is a joint effort and requires discussion among all stakeholders.
In his talk Benjamin Weyl (BMW Group) gave an overview on "Security Requirements, Baseline Concepts, and Open Questions" and outlined the status of discussion within the Working Group Security of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium. Based on a reference model the discussion areas are divided in technical and non-technical discussions. The proposed security concept and relevant baselines cover trustworthy dissemination of data, observing privacy and the usage of multiple identities. He discussed the solution space of security mechanisms related to scalability and efficiency more detailed. The analysis favours PKI and dynamic pseudonyms. He states that CAR 2 Infrastructure communication enables CAR 2 CAR Communication, due to the necessary key, certificate, and identity management. However a lot of especially non-technical questions still have to be answered in future.
Tim Leinmüller (DaimlerChrysler) highlighted "Security Challenges for C2C-CC Standards and Relevant Research" in his presentation. As motivation he started with some examples of attacks on vehicular applications and their possible results followed by an overview on projects and initiatives relevant for Car-2-Car Communication Security. The security concepts of the project Network on Wheels (NOW) have been discussed more detailed and different views enabled an insight into the NOW security architecture. The major functions are currently implemented in the NOW experimental demonstrator platform for proof-of-concept.
Workshop 6 : Architecture
Session Chair: Timo Kosch (BMW Group)
Robert Lasowski (Softlab GmbH) discussed the Car-2-X System architecture from a safety applications? perspective in his talk on "The WILLWARN system architecture". Starting with the functional and hardware requirements he outlined the basic functionality and application types. The overall architecture was discussed more detailed for the different modules of hazard detection, vehicle to vehicle communication, position relevance check, warning message management, and hazard warning. Further challenges are seen in developing a system for safety and non-safety applications as well as in developing a communication unit, which implements different protocols for parallel usage.
"Communications Access Land Mobile environment - CALM standards currently being validated within the CVIS project" was reported by Hans-Joachim Fischer (ESF GmbH). He pointed out that CALM supports both IPv6 for commercial services as well as fast communication needed for road safety and commented the status of the several CALM standard documents. He highlighted the Groupcast manager and the CALM FAST architecture supporting single-hop communication with special focus on safety related applications. For the validation of the CALM protocols CVIS has build up an open platform. Finally he pointed out the ongoing challenges and invited all experts for active contribution.
In his presentation Wenhui Zhang (NEC Europe Ltd. Network Laboratories) raised the question "How can safety and non-safety applications be supported in one system?" After introducing the overall scenario, use-cases and general conditions he compared the requirements of safety and non-safety applications and drew up alternative architectures with different integration. For the partial integration he discussed both the basic and the extended system. The geo-routing principle were applied more detailed for unicast and broadcast messages. Finally he discussed the IP-support of the extended system for non-safety mobility applications.
Final 7 : Panel Discussion / Wrap-up
In his talk Rudolf Mietzner (General Manager of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium) summarised the main topics and aspects discussed during the 1st CAR 2 CAR Forum and led over to the final statements of the C2C-CC Work group leaders followed by the final panel discussion.
Mr. Menig (Audi AG) pointed out the need of an active application working group for addressing all the relevant aspects. Business models and deployment strategies will be discussed more detailed in the successive events. However questions related to legislative and insurance have to be addressed by an additional working group. Dr. Lübke (Volkswagen AG) remarked that two hours are not enough for discussing all the details of PHY - MAC - NET. However the session was a good starting point and will be continued. The discussion with the working group security will be intensified for jointly addressing the identified gaps and challenges.
Dr. Kosch (BMW Group) highlighted the complex communication system and the addressed open issues. Various solutions from the R&D projects are developed, which have to be harmonised towards a common architecture. A good starting point is seen in the Manifesto, which has been published for the 1st CAR 2 CAR Forum. He thanked all members for their engaged contribution to this document. Based on the working status reached the input to the established standardisation bodies will be intensified in future.
Dr. Vögel (BMW Group) pointed out the security challenges of the complex communication system and the need of involving all stakeholders. So far a good working status could be reached, but the discussion is still in the research phase and has to be transferred into the pre-development phase in future.
Following the panel discussion Rudolf Mietzner (General Manager of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium) announced the
3rd International Workshop on Vehicle Communications
13 October 2007
which is organised by COMeSafety and hosted by the Intelligent Transport System China (ITSC). More information will be published within the following weeks on the COMeSafety website: